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Fetal Development Milestones: A Journey from Conception to Birth

The journey of fetal development is nothing short of a miracle. From the moment of conception to the day of birth, an intricate and awe-inspiring process unfolds, shaping a tiny cluster of cells into a fully-formed baby. Understanding these milestones is not only fascinating but also crucial for expectant parents and healthcare professionals. We offer a comprehensive range of services, including Invasives, USG in Pregnancy, Non-Invasives, and Blood Tests, all aimed at ensuring the proper fetal development of your precious baby.

Conception: The Starting Point

Fetal development begins at the moment of conception when a sperm cell successfully fertilizes an egg. This magical union creates a single-cell zygote, packed with genetic material from both parents. This tiny zygote marks the very inception of your baby’s remarkable journey.

Weeks 1-4: Early Developments

During the first four weeks, the zygote rapidly divides into a blastocyst and skillfully implants itself into the mother’s uterus. The fetus begins its journey with the formation of the neural tube, which will eventually give rise to the baby’s brain and spinal cord. Astonishingly, the heart starts to beat around the fourth week, albeit in its simplest tube-like form.

Weeks 5-8: Formation of Organs

Vital organs like the heart, liver, and kidneys begin to take shape during this period. Limb buds make their debut, gradually turning the embryo into a more recognizable human form. As fetal development continues, the eyes, nose, and ears start to form, and the embryo’s size increases significantly.

Weeks 9-12: Rapid Growth

Weeks 9 to 12 mark a period of rapid growth and development. Fingers and toes take on a more defined shape, and the baby’s sex organs begin to differentiate, though they may not be discernible on an ultrasound at this point. Surprisingly, the tiny fetus begins to make coordinated muscle movements, even though the mother cannot yet feel them.

Weeks 13-16: Sensory Development

Between weeks 13 and 16, fetal development reaches another milestone. The baby can now hear and swallow, and the foundation of their sense of taste is laid. Movements become more coordinated, and astonishingly, the fetus begins to make facial expressions. During this time, eyebrows and eyelashes begin to form, and the baby’s skin becomes less translucent.

Weeks 17-20: Quickening and Growth

Around weeks 17 to 20, many expectant mothers experience quickening—the first sensations of their baby’s movements. Meanwhile, the baby’s bones continue to harden, and a fine layer of hair called lanugo covers their skin. Gender can often be determined through ultrasound, bringing an additional layer of excitement to the journey of fetal development.

Weeks 21-24: Viability

Weeks 21 to 24 are a critical stage when the baby’s lungs begin producing surfactant, a substance essential for breathing. Fingernails and toenails develop, and the baby’s skin becomes less wrinkled. Remarkably, with advancements in medical care, some babies born at this stage can survive with intensive medical support.

Weeks 25-28: Brain Growth

During this period, the baby’s brain experiences rapid growth, particularly in the cerebral cortex, the center of higher functions. They can open their eyes and may even respond to light and sound. Additionally, the immune system begins to mature, providing the baby with some initial defenses against infections.

Weeks 29-32: Final Preparations

As fetal development progresses into weeks 29 to 32, the baby accumulates fat under their skin, making it less translucent. The baby practices breathing movements, inhaling and exhaling amniotic fluid, preparing for the transition to life outside the womb. The digestive system also matures, getting ready for the introduction of breast milk or formula.

Weeks 33-40: Home Stretch

In the final weeks of pregnancy, the baby’s head typically moves downward in preparation for birth, a phenomenon known as “engagement.” These weeks mark the culmination of fetal development, as the baby’s organs are fully formed, and they primarily focus on growth and gaining weight. Most babies are born between 37 and 42 weeks, considered full-term.

Ensuring Proper Fetal Development

Monitoring fetal development is vital for ensuring a healthy pregnancy and birth. We are dedicated to providing a range of services, including Invasives, USG in Pregnancy, Non-Invasives, and Blood Tests, all designed to assess and promote the proper development of your precious baby. Understanding these milestones helps expectant parents appreciate the incredible journey from conception to birth and make informed choices for the well-being of their baby.

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Answering the Frequently Asked Questions About NIPT Test

NIPT Test is the acronym for Noninvasive Prenatal Testing. It is a process where the blood of the expecting mother is used to find congenital abnormalities in the DNA of the foetus. The test can provide results of probabilities about vital genetic disorders like Down Syndrome. It can be tested once the mother reaches ten weeks of pregnancy.

Commonly Asked Questions About NIPT:

As NIPT is a cell-free DNA test, parents have many questions. They ask their doctors about different aspects of the test, from its effectiveness to costs. If you are considering going for this test, it is better to remain informed about its basics. We discuss some popularly asked questions in the following section.

Which Issues Can be Screened by NIPT?

NIPT is a very common test, but it cannot screen all genetic disorders or ailments. It can detect some genetic problems of the foetus, like:

1. Down Syndrome
2. Sex Chromosome
3. Disorders
4. Trisomy 13 and 18

However, before going for a NIPT, you should communicate with your healthcare assistant. They can inform you about the NIPT Panel and the disorder that it can detect. The test has different panels that can diagnose some particular genetic issues of the foetus.

How Accurate are these tests?

The accuracy of NIPT largely depends on the genetic issue you want to find. Other minor factors can also affect the accuracy of the NIPT, including:

1. Surrogacy
2. Obesity
3. Pregnant with Multiple Children

The chances of NIPT producing false or inaccurate results are nearly non-existent. It is about 99% accurate in detecting Down Syndrome and shows a fair accuracy in detecting Trisomy 18 and 13.

Is NIPT During Pregnancy a Vital Need?

NIPT is completely a personal choice of the parents. It does not come under mandatory pregnancy tests. If you wish to discuss the screenings in more detail, you can go for NIPT and allied prenatal tests. You can also discuss with your healthcare provider the need for NIPT.

When Can You Get the Results of NIPT?

NIPT generally takes two weeks to get processed. You may get the result after this period. However, in some tests, you can achieve the results sooner than two weeks. Your healthcare assistant will first analyse the results and then share the details with you.

Fetal Medicine Unit Kolkata

If you need quality assistance in Non-Invasive Prenatal Testing or NIPT, you should contact an expert source like Institute of Fetal Medicine (IFM). We are one of the prominent clinics that can provide accurate NIPT results. For more details, you can visit our website today.

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How to Choose a Good Fetal Care Clinic for High-Risk Pregnancy

Pregnancy can be risky for some women. The entire process can cause a huge health risk for some would-be moms and their unborn babies too. Thanks to modern medical technologies that nowadays, pregnancy has become less risky than before. If your ob-gyn suspects your case is a high-risk pregnancy, you must opt for a reputable clinic where fetal medicine and care are available.

Kolkata has multiple clinics where Fetal Echocardiography and other clinical tests are done to ensure that the mother and the fetus are in a safe condition. Finding one suitable for you is not tough when you know how to choose the right one.

Vital Factors to Check in a Fetal Care Centre

List of Doctors, Radiologists and Other Technicians

A clinic can provide you with the best service because of its team. Thus, it is important to check the list of doctors and other technicians to ensure that you will receive the best support from the top professionals in this industry. Go through the names of fetal care experts, obstetricians and gynaecologists, along with radiologists and fetal medicine professionals. Check their degrees and experience to be sure about their skills and experience.

Range of Services

A good fetal care unit typically offers a range of services for would-be mothers and their unborn babies. This also includes infertility treatments, special care for high-risk pregnancies, Invasives and Non-invasives, IVF/IUI, USG and blood tests in pregnancy. All these medical examinations are done to monitor the fetus’s and the mom’s health. Fetal medicine experts will check these reports and determine what type of treatments your unborn baby should receive inside your womb to be born healthy.

Advanced Equipment

A modern fetal care unit must have advanced equipment that will help doctors and technicians correct and diagnose the issues in a woman and her unborn baby. The results must be accurate and detect different aspects of one particular medical condition. Complex tests like Fetal Echocardiography and others must be done with modern equipment by skilled and certified
technicians only.

Good Customer Service

Fetal care clinics must have excellent customer service. Generally, people come here with lots of anxiety and stress. It is the responsibility of the clinic’s staff to make them feel comfortable and stress-free with the right guidance and treatments.

IFM Fetal Medicine Unit Kolkata

Institute of Fetal Medicine or IFM offers a range of services and medical options to make pregnancy the most lovable and memorable experience of your life. We have highly advanced equipment in our clinic. Our doctors are the best in their field. Please get in touch with us for more details.

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Know the Different Causes and Treatments of Infertility

Infertility might be caused due to a few elements in the male or female reproductive system. In any case, making sense of the reasons for infertility is now and again unrealistic. In the female reproductive system’, infertility might be brought about by:

• Tubal problems, for example, impeded fallopian tubes, which are thus brought about by untreated physically communicated contaminations (STIs) or complexities of perilous early termination, post-pregnancy sepsis or stomach/pelvic medical procedure
• Problems of the ovaries, for example, polycystic ovarian condition and other follicular issues
• Problems with the endocrine framework cause irregular characteristics in regenerative chemicals. The endocrine framework incorporates the nerve centre and the pituitary organs. Instances of normal problems influencing this framework incorporate pituitary diseases and hypopituitarism.

The Primary Diagnosis of Infertility

Before infertility testing, your primary care physician or centre attempts to figure out your sexual propensities and may suggest working on your possibility of getting pregnant. Infertility assessment can be costly and now and then includes extensive methods. A few clinical plans may not take care of the expense of ripeness treatment.

Tests For Women

You might have an actual overall test, including a standard gynaecological test. Definitive infertility tests might include:

Ovulation testing

A blood test estimates chemical levels to decide if you’re ovulating.
Hysterosalpingography assesses the state of your uterus and fallopian tubes and searches for blockages or different issues. X-Ray contrast is infused into your uterus, and an X-Ray is taken to decide whether the hole is ordinary and to check whether the liquid pours out of your fallopian tubes.

Ovarian save testing

This testing decides the number of eggs accessible for ovulation. This approach frequently starts with chemical testing in the feminine cycle.

Imaging tests

A pelvic ultrasound searches for uterine or ovarian sickness. Sometimes, a sonohysterogram, also called a saline imbuement ultrasound image, is utilised to view subtleties inside the uterus that are not seen on a standard ultrasound. Depending upon your circumstance; seldom your testing might include:


Depending upon your side effects, your primary care physician might demand a hysteroscopy to search for uterine sickness. During the technique, your PCP embeds a slim, lit gadget through your cervix into your uterus to see any irregularities.


This negligibly obtrusive medical procedure includes making a little entry point underneath your navel and embedding a meagre review gadget to inspect your fallopian tubes, ovaries and uterus. A laparoscopy might recognise endometriosis, scarring, blockages or inconsistencies of the fallopian tubes, and issues with the ovaries and uterus.

Fetal Medicine Unit Kolkata

Institute Of Fetal Medicine is a repeat Infertility Specialist clinic in Kolkata. To know more about us, visit our website.

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Important Tips For a Healthy Pregnancy

Pregnancy is a beautiful experience that is blessed for a woman that can not be described in words. However, care that needs to be taken during pregnancy is to ensure the good health of the baby and the mother. Pregnancy care tips will help you take good care of yourself and prepare you for post – the pregnancy phase too. Here are a few pregnancy care tips that every mother needs to remember;

Prescription: Don’t skirt the endorsed medication as an extremely essential and significant pregnancy care tip. Stringently heed the specialist’s guidance and before taking any new pill, guarantee that you counsel your doctor.

Diet: It is essential to have a filling and wholesome eating regimen that upholds you as well as your developing child.

Work out: Though you can’t do weighty activities, guaranteeing you are dynamic and not lazy. You can take the advice from an expert mentor that will train you and give able activities for eager moms.

Positive Mood: The last but not the least pregnancy care tip is to keep an inspirational tone and carry blissful considerations to your brain.

Check-up: Visit your doctor, and he will check different boundaries like your general wellbeing, weight, and nutrient inadequacies. Specialists likewise exhort about the way of life, diet and prescriptions in light of your clinical history.

Folic Acid: Before you intend to get pregnant, begin taking folic corrosive and imperative nutrient pills. Folic corrosive admission precludes pre-birth deserts, and generally, the suggested measurement is 400 micrograms. Specialists by and large recommend one folic corrosive pill to be required consistently.

Propensities: Keep your drinking and smoking propensities in line as over-the-top drinking or smoking damages the child, and the dangers of birth abandonment are expanded. Assuming you have a propensity for drinking a lot of coffee or tea, you want to eliminate that.

Animation: Ensure that you are dynamic and not lazy.

Wellbeing: Children now and again can’t let you know if they are feeling sick or unwell. These may not be actual issues. He could fear a domineering jerk in school and foster nervousness.

Cordial Relationship: Keeping a well-disposed connection with your kid is important. Sans any apprehension or aversion, your youngster needs to talk unreservedly and voice his perspectives with practically no trepidation. Keeping up with correspondence is the key to laying out great relations.

Fetal Medicine Unit Kolkata

Institute Of Fetal Medicine is the renowned institute where you can get the best pregnancy care in Kolkata. To know more visit our website.

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Types of Doppler Ultrasound Tests that You Should Know About

In modern-day prenatal tests, ultrasound plays an important role. It is a high-frequency sound wave that can be effective in tissue diagnoses. Among various ultrasound tests, the Doppler test has a significance of its own.

What is a Doppler Test?

A Doppler test is a much more simple process compared to invasive procedures like venography. It is widely used to detect abnormalities in blood flow and diagnose problems like thrombosis. In the Doppler test, the sound waves do not bounce back after hitting the surface. As a result, it can be useful in tracking moving objects.

More About the Four Kinds of Doppler Tests:

Different Doppler tests in Kolkata are available for diagnosing any prenatal issues. These may be non-invasive procedures, but their effectiveness cannot be challenged. One can get more information about these tests from this blog.

Colour Doppler Test: One can obtain images of blood vessels by standard ultrasound tests. This type of Doppler test converts the sounds into different colours. These are overlaid on the blood vessel image, which helps to determine the speed of the blood flow. It can be effective in detecting blood clots in the body of the mother and the foetus.

Duplex Doppler Test: It is a specialised Doppler test that can determine the direction and speed of blood flow in the limbs. A combination of standard ultrasound methods produces a clear picture of the blood vessels. It is sometimes considered an alternative method of venography and arteriography.

Continuous Wave Doppler: In this process, the ultrasound waves are frequently transmitted via the transducer. A doctor analyses the findings of these sound waves to determine any abnormality in blood flow. Generally, a portable machine is used to provide a quick estimate of the condition. The change in the pitch of the sound waves can provide important information about blood flow through the vessels.

Power Doppler Test: This test is performed by using the amplitude of the Doppler signal. It is effective in capturing the moving particles. Power Doppler test can be the most effective procedure for detection of lesser velocity compared to other tests. This can inform one about the blood flow rate through veins and arteries in solid organs.
To get professional assistance in a wide range of Doppler tests, one can contact the Institute of Fetal Medicine. They have experts who have years of experience in this field. For more details, one can visit their website.

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3 Factors to Keep in Mind for 3D Ultrasonography Pregnancy Test

Ultrasonography is a major component of pregnancy tests where the would-be parents can get an image of the unborn foetus. With 2D ultrasonography, it is not possible to determine if any abnormality is present in the foetus. Hence, 3D ultrasonography pregnancy tests are used to determine the same. With the help of 3D ultrasounds, you can get a clear picture of the baby’s exteriors and interiors. Without 3D, a doctor can easily assess the growth of a child. However, the technology is used to check the abnormalities during the growth process of the foetus.

However, there are many concerns regarding the use of ultrasounds on the unborn foetus. Many people believe that the excessive transmission of rays through the scans can lead to congenital disabilities. Hence, getting the ultrasound done by an expert is essential. They know the correct amount of power that should be applied during the scan process to ensure that the unborn foetus is not harmed.

Hence, before you decide to opt for the 3D ultrasound pregnancy test, make sure that you keep these points in mind.

What to keep in mind before opting for a 3D ultrasonography pregnancy test?

Check the Certifications of the Sonographer

For a 3D ultrasound, make sure that you check the certifications of the sonographer before booking your appointment with the same. They must have certifications for performing the test. The person conducting the ultrasound must be capable of getting a clear and good picture of the unborn foetus.

Verify the Cost of the Test

Generally, the commercial cost of performing 4D ultrasounds is quite high. Thus, before you book your appointment, make sure that you verify the cost of the test and compare the cost with different diagnostics centres. Rather than thinking about saving money, make sure that you go for quality and affordability.

Know about the Safety Concerns

Ultrasound rays can be fatal to the foetus – this is a major concern that keeps on crossing the minds of pregnant mothers. If you want to get rid of this stress, make sure that you check the same with the sonographer before opting for the test. They will clarify the process, effects and the side effects of the same.

For the best 3D ultrasonography pregnancy test, book your dates with the Institute of Fetal Medicine. We have the best infrastructural facilities and certified sonographers for the job. Check our website and book your appointment.

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Your Common Queries About Fetal Echocardiography Have Been Answered

Fetal echocardiography is very similar to ultrasounds. Your gynaecologist might advice you to undergo the test during your second trimester to see the function and structure of the child’s heart. The best time to undergo the test is between 18 to 24 weeks. Sound waves are used to understand the structure of the fetus’s heart.

A picture or echocardiogram is created by a machine analysing the sound waves. The doctor can get a clearer image of the baby’s heart which makes it easier for them to assess how the heart is forming and whether it is properly functioning. They can see how blood is flowing through the heart and identify abnormalities in the heartbeat or in blood flow.

When Do Doctors Use Fetal Echocardiography?

Let your doctor decide whether you will require a fetal echocardiogram or not. All pregnant women don’t need it. An experienced ultrasonographer or ultrasound technician will perform the test. The result will be reviewed by someone specialising in paediatric medicine. Though you can also undergo a basic ultrasound to check the development of the baby’s heart, a fetal echocardiogram gives a clearer image of the baby’s heart. Your doctor will advise you to undergo the procedure if the ultrasound test wasn’t conclusive or an abnormal heartbeat was detected in the fetus during the previous test.

Few More Situations When You Might Need A Fetal Echocardiography Test

  • There is a risk of heart abnormality or other heart conditions in the unborn child.

  • You have taken medicines like prescription acne drugs or epilepsy drugs as they are known for causing heart diseases.

  • You have a history of heart disease in your family’s history

  • You are suffering from medical conditions like diabetes, rubella, lupus or phenylketonuria.

  • Your previous child was born with a heart condition

  • You have consumed alcohol or drugs during your pregnancy.

What Do You Mean By Abdominal Echocardiography?

Fetal Echocardiography in Kolkata is quite similar to an ultrasound. The technician conducting the test will ask you to lie down in a straight posture which will expose your belly. They will apply a lubricating jelly so there is no friction while they are moving the ultrasound transducer. The device is used to receive and send sound waves over the skin. The jelly transmits high-frequency sound waves sent by the transducer. You can return to your normal activities after they clean off the jelly.

Since your common queries about fetal echocardiography have been answered, it’s time you get in touch with the experts at IFM Kolkata.

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Know The Common Medical Causes Of Male Infertility

If you and your partner are having regular unprotected sex for almost a year but still you are failing to conceive, the reason might be infertility. Either the male or female might be infertile. Recently, there has been a drastic increase in the total number of male infertility cases. Illnesses, chronic health problems, injuries and lifestyle choices are few common causes of male infertility. You can deal with the situation by getting in touch with an infertility specialist. He will conduct a few tests to know the exact cause of infertility before treating it.

Visiting An Infertility Specialist? Know The 4 Medical Causes Of Male Infertility

  • Varicocele

There are veins which drain the testicle. Varicocele is the condition when the veins drain. It is a very common and irreversible cause of male infertility. Though the exact relation between male infertility and varicoceles is still unknown, it might occur due to abnormal blood flow. The condition reduces the quality and quantity of sperm reproduction.

  • Ejaculation Issues

Retrograde ejaculation is the condition when semen enters the person’s bladder instead of coming out of the penis. Few of the common health conditions that can lead to ejaculation issues are medications, spinal injuries, bladder surgery, diabetes, and urethra.

  • Infection

Infections can also cause male infertility by scarring and blocking the passage through which sperms pass. Few of the common types of infections are inflammation of testicles or the epididymis or sexually transmitted infections like HIV or gonorrhoea. Since all infections don’t lead to permanent testicular damage, it is advisable to get in touch with an infertility specialist in Kolkata.

  • Tumors

The male reproductive organs might also get affected due to non-malignant tumors or cancers. They directly affect the gland responsible for releasing hormones associated with reproduction like the pituitary gland. A person with a tumor often has to undergo chemotherapy, surgery, or radiation, impacting male fertility.

  • Hormone Imbalances

Disorders of the testicles can cause male infertility or lead to abnormality of the hormonal system like pituitary, thyroid, hypothalamus or adrenal glands. There are numerous underlying causes of male hypogonadism (low testosterone) or other hormonal issues. Low testosterone levels can cause andropause or male menopause.

Since there are so many causes of male infertility, it’s time you get in touch with the infertility specialists at IFM Kolkata. They follow medically proven techniques to treat fertility issues in couples of all ages.

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Role and Types of Ultrasound Pregnancy Test in Kolkata

From the day of conceiving to the day of delivery, a woman has to undergo emotional, mental and physical turmoil. There can be an unlimited number of complications throughout the pregnancy period. However, most of the complications remain undetected unless an ultrasonography pregnancy test is conducted on the mother.

In the entire 9 months of pregnancy, a mother must undergo many tests, out of which the 3D ultrasonography test in Kolkata is gaining popularity. With the help of this ultrasonography, the doctor can check the foetal development. Moreover, institutes use advanced technology to conduct a 3D ultrasonography test and hence any major complications can be detected, and necessary precautions can be taken to prevent further damage.

Every woman has undergone different ultrasonography tests during their pregnancy period. To know about the importance of availing the same, read on.

Why are ultrasound sonography tests important?

During the pregnancy period, 3 or 4 times, USG is done to check the baby’s development and complications in the pregnancy.

Early visibility scan

This is done at the moment when the individual conceives. The doctors check the number of gestational sacs and the fetus’s heart rates. Along with this, the doctors also check the condition of the uterus and ovary after the woman has conceived. Depending on the same reports, the individual is guided for the later stages of pregnancy.

NT scan

This is done between 11 to 13 weeks of pregnancy. The major reason behind conducting this scan is to check the presence of down syndrome in the child.

Anomaly scan

This scan is generally done between the 18 to 20th weeks of the pregnancy. This is vital USG as in this stage, the doctors check the development of the fetus’s spinal cord, heart, kidney, brain, and limbs.

Growth Scan

This is usually the last USG that a woman has to undergo during the 30th week. This USG shows the position of the placenta, amount of fluid, blood flow and oxygen flow into the baby. Depending on the results, the doctors fix the date of delivery.

 3 types of Ultrasounds

3D ultrasound

You’ll receive 3D images with specific details like the fetus’s height, width, depth, and organs.

Transvaginal ultrasound

This is done by probing through the vagina and gives a clear image of the lower abdomen, ovaries, and position of the placenta.

4D ultrasound

With the help of this USG, you can get a moving video of the foetus along with a clearer picture of the fetus’s face and movement.

For the best 3D ultrasonography pregnancy test in Kolkata, visit the Institute of Fetal Medicine. Our trained experts will help you get a clearer picture of the unborn child. Visit our website for further details.